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[291] Andrew Smith, of Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT), said that Hunt and Boris Johnson "played an utterly central and complicit role in arming and supporting the Saudi-led destruction of Yemen. [264], In order to protect the house of Khalifa, the monarchs of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia invaded Bahrain by sending military troops to quell the uprising of Bahraini people on 14 March 2011. (In the privacy of the home behavior can be far looser, and reports from the Daily Mail and WikiLeaks indicate that the ruling Saudi Royal family applies a different moral code to itself, indulging in parties, drugs and sex. Né le 12.3.1971 à Riyadh, Arabie Saoudite. [381], The religious police, known as the mutawa, impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia. At Jizan in the country's well-watered southwest, the Al-Hikmah Research Station is producing tropical fruits including pineapples, paw-paws, bananas, mangoes and guavas. Coffee, served in the Arabic style, is the traditional beverage but tea and various fruit juices are popular as well. Jahrhundert zurückverfolgen. [557] As of 2015[update], Saudi women constitute 13% of the country's native workforce despite being 51% of all university graduates. 1735–1765) schloss 1744 in Diriyya (heute ein Vorort von Riad) ein Bündnis mit Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, dem Begründer der Wahhabiten. "[390] The Tadawul All Share Index (TASI) of the Saudi stock exchange peaked at 16,712.64 in 2005, and closed at 8,535.60, at the end of 2013. Bedouin poetry, known as nabaṭī, is still very popular. [416] Saudi population has grown rapidly since 1950 when it was estimated to be 3 million,[417] and for many years had one of the highest birthrates in the world at around 3 percent a year. Music and dance have always been part of Saudi life. [52][53] Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning "family of" or "House of",[54] to the personal name of an ancestor. The Saudi Foreign Ministry retaliated with an equal statement saying, "it will respond with greater action," indicating the kingdom's "influential and vital role in the global economy." In the spring and autumn the heat is temperate, temperatures average around 29 °C (84 °F). There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan. [546][548] A royal decree passed in May 2017 allowed them to avail government services such as education and healthcare without the need of a consent of a male guardian. [465] Übersetzung für 'Arabie Saoudite' im kostenlosen Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. open_in_new Link to source ; warning Request revision ; The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia became active on the Arab, Islamic and international levels. It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province (which is also the location of the oil fields) might rebel under the influence of their Iranian co-religionists. [279], Saudi Arabia halted new trade and investment dealings with Canada and suspended diplomatic ties in a dramatic escalation of a dispute over the kingdom's arrest of women's rights activist Samar Badawi on 6 August 2018. [115] After his accession to the throne in 2005, King Abdullah took steps to reduce the powers of the ulema, for instance transferring control over girls' education to the Ministry of Education. However, the unexpected impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the economy, along with Saudi Arabia's poor human rights records, laid unforeseen challenges before the development plans of the Kingdom, where some of the programs under ‘Vision 2030’ were also expected to be affected. However, the superstar players Lacey Evans and Natalya were required to cover their arms and legs by wearing bodysuits during the fight, instead of the more revealing gear that they would normally wear. Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1,800 gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world. [529] Other events since the GEA's creation have included comedy shows, professional wrestling events and monster truck rallies. Human rights issues that have attracted strong criticism include the extremely disadvantaged position of women (see Women below), capital punishment for homosexuality,[333] religious discrimination, the lack of religious freedom and the activities of the religious police (see Religion below). [528] The prehistory of Saudi Arabia shows some of the earliest traces of human activity in the world. Shortly thereafter, Saudi Arabia began exporting wheat to some 30 countries, including China and the former Soviet Union, and in the major producing areas of Tabuk, Hail and Qasim, average yields reached 8.1 tonnes per hectare (3.6 short ton/acre). [88] Al-Muntafiq tribe later took over the region and came under Ottoman suzerainty. [468][f], Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia and its law requires that all citizens be Muslims. English Translation of “Arabie Saoudite” | The official Collins French-English Dictionary online. Bouleversement en Arabie Saoudite : le prince saoudien Khaled Bin Alwaleed est vegan depuis 5 ans, il investit massivement dans les énergies propres et les alternatives végétales à la viande. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from the Sinai (Egypt) in the north-west by the Gulf of Aqaba. [329] Human Rights Watch, in a 2008 report, noted that a criminal procedure code had been introduced for the first time in 2002, but it lacked some basic protections and, in any case, had been routinely ignored by judges. Most online censorship generally falls into two categories: one based on censoring "immoral" (mostly pornographic and LGBT-supportive websites along with websites promoting any religious ideology other than Sunni Islam) and one based on a blacklist run by Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Media, which primarily censors websites critical of the Saudi regime or associated with parties that are opposed to or opposed by Saudi Arabia. Within the framework of the 2016 National Transformation Program, also known as Saudi Vision 2030, the kingdom allocated 900 million euros to preserve its historical and cultural heritage. Laos | The "sharek" visa process will start with 15 December, Saudia Ad Diriyah E Prix race. [205], Retaliatory punishments, or Qisas, are practised: for instance, an eye can be surgically removed at the insistence of a victim who lost his own eye. Gegenwärtig entstammen ihr etwa 5000[1][2][3] bis 7000[4] lebende Prinzen, die alle großzügig staatlich alimentiert werden. [208] Studies have shown that Saudi Arabia has one of the lowest crime rates in the world although there are differing views as to whether this is attributable to the legal system or other factors such as social structures. [588][589], Education is free at all levels. [156][158] When prince Sultan died before ascending to the throne on 21 October 2011, King Abdullah appointed Prince Nayef as crown prince. Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic (i.e., Darwinian) coral reef classification schemes, and are generally attributed to the high levels of tectonic activity that characterize the area. [142] The main topographical feature is the central plateau which rises abruptly from the Red Sea and gradually descends into the Nejd and toward the Persian Gulf. [322] France authorized $18 billion in weapons sales to Saudi Arabia in 2015 alone. For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel-hair cloak (bisht) over the top. ", "Welcome to the Saudi Arabia vs. Canada Troll War", "Turkey seeks answers from Saudi Arabia on missing journalist", "Saudi Arabia and U.S. The main factors that influence the culture of Saudi Arabia are Islamic heritage and Bedouin traditions as well as its historical role as an ancient trade center. [148] The number of princes is estimated to be at least 7,000, with most power and influence being wielded by the 200 or so male descendants of Ibn Saud. [400] According to data from Fitch Ratings, over two years starting from May 2016 Saudi Arabia went from having zero debt to raising $68 billion in dollar-denominated bonds and syndicated loans—one of the fastest rates among emerging economies. [297] Apart from China, the UN nuclear watchdog, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was also assisting Saudi’s nuclear ambition. [400], Serious large-scale agricultural development began in the 1970s. No lists yet! Saudi Arabia maintains a list of sectors in which foreign investment is prohibited, but the government plans to open some closed sectors such as telecommunications, insurance, and power transmission/distribution over time. [314], Spending on defense and security has increased significantly since the mid-1990s and was about US$78.4 billion, as of 2019. "They are not funding terrorism. the start of each lunar month determined not ahead of time by astronomical calculation, but only after the crescent moon is sighted by the proper religious authorities. The fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis, basins, and oases. [45][46], Saudi Arabia is considered a regional and middle power. In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. L'actuel prince héritier et vice-Premier ministre d'Arabie saoudite est Mohammed ben Salmane Al Saoud depuis le 21 juin 2017. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad united the population of Arabia and created a single Islamic religious polity. [70] The nomadic Midianites were one of the earliest exploiters of the domestication of camels that enabled them to navigate through the harsh terrains of the region. [401], Each year, about a quarter-million young Saudis enter the job market. [56] A 2011 study found that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75,000 years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting the Horn of Africa and Arabia. This work is on 0 lists. For example, in Riyadh water was available only once every 2.5 days in 2011, while in Jeddah it is available only every 9 days. The statue was locally made under strong Mesopotamian influence on the artistic principle of Dilmun. [236][237][238][239] In the first decade of the 21st century the Saudi Arabia paid approximately $100 million to American firms to lobby the U.S. Saudi Arabia's command economy is petroleum-based; roughly 63%[378] of budget revenues and 67%[379] of export earnings come from the oil industry. [289] Another documentary by Bryan Fogel, The Dissident, which excavated a web of deceit behind the murder, was to be released on the same day that marked second death anniversary of Khashoggi. The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero,[447] as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam (apostasy) and punishes it by death. [312][313] The SANG is not a reserve but a fully operational front-line force, and originated out of Ibn Saud's tribal military-religious force, the Ikhwan. [404], The olive tree is indigenous to Saudi Arabia. [229][230] However, the relationship between Saudi Arabia and the United States became strained and have witnessed major decline during the last years of the Obama administration,[231][232][233] although Obama had authorized US forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a joint coordination planning cell with the Saudi military that is helping manage the war,[234][235] and CIA used Saudi bases for drone assassinations in Yemen. A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. [154] The current Minister of Defense is Prince Mohammad bin Salman, the son of King Salman and Crown Prince. [526][527] [448] According to Pew Research Center there are 390,000 Hindus in Saudi Arabia, almost all foreign workers. Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively. [459], As Saudi population grows and oil export revenues stagnate, pressure for "Saudization" (the replacement of foreign workers with Saudis) has grown, and the Saudi government hopes to decrease the number of foreign nationals in the country. [493] In the state school system, about half of the material taught is religious. Schon um 1500 wurde der Wadi Hanifa kontrolliert und regierten die Sauds eines der bedeutendsten Fürstentümer in Zentralarabien. [248][249][250][251][252][253] In February 2019, Crown Prince Mohammad defended China's Xinjiang re-education camps for Uyghur Muslims,[254][255] saying "China has the right to carry out anti-terrorism and de-extremisation work for its national security. [535] More traditional sports such as horse racing and camel racing are also popular. [3][559], Obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudis who have domestic servants to do traditional work but, until 2018, were forbidden to drive and so are limited in their ability to leave their home. During the 1992 FIFA Confederations Cup, which was played in Saudi Arabia, the country reached the final, losing 1–3 to Argentina. [123] In February–April 2005, the first-ever nationwide municipal elections were held in Saudi Arabia. People . In the case of the Al Saud, this is Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin, the father of the dynasty's 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark. [609], Saudi Arabia has a life expectancy of 74.99 years (73.79 for males and 76.61 for females) according to the latest data for the year 2018 from the World Bank. In September 2018, the Public Investment Fund completed a deal with a group of global lenders for a loan of $11 billion. [555], The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia,[556] with child marriage no longer common. [546][561] The restrictions include forcing women to sit in separate specially designated family sections in restaurants, to wear an abaya and to cover their hair. Per capita income fell from a high of $11,700 at the height of the oil boom in 1981 to $6,300 in 1998. [566], On 25 September 2011, King Abdullah announced that Saudi women would gain the right to vote (and to be candidates) in municipal elections, provided that a male guardian grants permission. 156–157. Aha Ashielah: Added Flowers in the mirror to the list. [341] In January 2016, Saudi Arabia executed the prominent Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr who had called for pro-democracy demonstrations and for free elections in Saudi Arabia. [109], The new kingdom was reliant on limited agriculture and pilgrimage revenues. Bangladesch | The enforcement of the anti-corruption laws is selective and public officials engage in corruption with impunity. Company . Dates, once a staple of the Saudi diet, are now mainly grown for global humanitarian aid. [530] In 2018 the first public cinema opened after a ban of 35 years, with plans to have more than 2,000 screens running by 2030. [565] As of 2018, two women hold cabinet positions in the Saudi government: Dr Tamadur bint Youssef Al Ramah, who was appointed deputy labor minister that year; and Norah bint Abdallah Al Faiz, who became deputy minister of education in charge of women's affairs in 2009. On 24 August 2017, the Kingdom signed a memorandum of understanding with China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) to explore and assess uranium[294] On 4 August 2020, a report claimed that Saudi Arabia has constructed a facility in the desert near Al-Ula for extracting uranium yellowcake from uranium ore with the help of China. Organization. [384] Taking into account the impact of the real oil price changes on the Kingdom's real gross domestic income, the real command-basis GDP was computed to be 330.381 billion 1999 USD in 2010. The Kingdom has, however, stepped up fruit and vegetable production, by improving both agricultural techniques and the roads that link farmers with urban consumers. [211][212] [63], By the late Bronze Age, a historically recorded people and land (Midian and the Midianites) in the north-western portion of Saudi Arabia are well-documented in the Bible. In 1972, Saudi Arabia gained a 20 percent control in Aramco, thereby decreasing US control over Saudi oil. The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic (about 6 million speakers[430]), Najdi Arabic (about 8 million speakers[431]), and Gulf Arabic (about 0.2 million speakers[432]). [139] The Economist rated the Saudi government as the fifth most authoritarian government out of 167 rated in its 2012 Democracy Index,[26] and Freedom House gave it its lowest "Not Free" rating, 7.0 ("1=best, 7=worst") for 2019. The southwest province of Asir is mountainous, and contains the 3,133 m (10,279 ft) Mount Sawda, which is the highest point in the country. "[263] A trip to Saudi by US President Barack Obama in 2014 included discussions of US–Iran relations, though these failed to resolve Riyadh's concerns. Instruments include the rabābah, an instrument not unlike a three-string fiddle, and various types of percussion instruments, such as the ṭabl (drum) and the ṭār (tambourine). [13], The territory that now constitutes Saudi Arabia was the site of several ancient cultures and civilizations. [569][570][571], In February 2017, Saudi Arabia appointed its first woman to head the Saudi Stock Exchange. [112] Khalid's reign saw economic and social development progress at an extremely rapid rate, transforming the infrastructure and educational system of the country;[80] in foreign policy, close ties with the US were developed. : ‚Nachkommen von Saʿūd‘) ist eine seit etwa 1735 existierende arabische Dynastie auf der Arabischen Halbinsel. [567] Women were allowed to vote and be candidates in the 12 December 2015 municipal elections. The film was based on the 2018 murder of Jamal Khashoggi by Saudi authorities. Arabie saoudite. Theresa May backed the US call to end the coalition. Since 2008, the operation of urban water distribution systems is being gradually delegated to private companies as well. [598] As a consequence, Saudi youth "generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs" according to the CIA. Rosie Cherie: Added Make your life worthwhile to the list. [142][355] Though there are a few lakes in the country, Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the world by area with no permanent rivers. Page created - February 19, 2011. [602], Saudi Arabia sponsors and promotes the teaching of Wahhabism, an ideology which has been adopted by Salafist Jihadist groups such as ISIS, Al-Qaeda and the Nusra Front. [546], Although Saudi Arabia imposes a strict dress code on women throughout the country by using religious police, female anchors working for Al-Arabia news network which is partly owned by Prince Abdulaziz, the son of the late King Fahad, are prohibited from wearing a veil and are encouraged to adopt a Western dress code. [142], Women's sport is controversial due to the suppression of female participation in sport by conservative Islamic religious authorities,[536] however this restriction has eased slightly in recent years. [524] During the Islamic revival movement in the 1980s, and as a political response to an increase in Islamist activism including the 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, the government closed all cinemas and theaters. [14] The world's second-largest religion,[15] Islam, emerged in modern-day Saudi Arabia. [466], Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab civilization. Saudi-US relations took an ugly turn on 14 October 2018, when Trump promised "severe punishment" if the royal court was responsible for Khashoggis’ death. [547] Other sources had complained of an absence of laws criminalizing violence against women. In Riyadh the following month King Salman met the head of the Vatican's Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. Statistics on poverty in the kingdom are not available through the UN resources because the Saudi government does not issue any. Kuwait | [337], Saudi Arabia has a "Counter-Radicalization Program" the purpose of which is to "combat the spread and appeal of extremist ideologies among the general populous (sic)" and to "instill the true values of the Islamic faith, such as tolerance and moderation. Bhutan | [290], Jeremy Hunt, the UK Foreign Secretary, on his visit to Saudi Arabia and the UAE on 12 November 2018, is expected to raise the need for a ceasefire from all sides in the four-year long Yemen civil war. [604], The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism, leading to reform efforts. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid, who ruled the Emirate of Jabal Shammar. [66] The capital of Midian was Qurayyah,[67] it consists of a large fortified citadel encompassing 35 hectares and below it lies a walled settlement of 15 hectares. Philippinen | [87] The vassals of Ormuz, the Shia Jarwanid dynasty came to rule eastern Arabia in the 14th century. [63] Mesopotamian inscribed clay tablets suggests that, in the early period of Dilmun, a form of hierarchical organized political structure existed. Irak | [88][89] The Jabrids took control of the region after overthrowing the Jarwanids in the 15th century and clashed with Hormuz for more than two decades over the region for its economic revenues, until finally agreeing to pay tribute in 1507. Le Prince d'Arabie saoudite / Lists. [124] Police stopped the demonstration after about 15 minutes and arrested 30 to 50 people. Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the wider Arab world, and has influenced and been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food. Most trials are held in secret. [240] On 20 May 2017, President Donald Trump and King Salman signed a series of letters of intent for Saudi Arabia to purchase arms from the United States totaling US$110 billion immediately,[241] and $350 billion over 10 years. With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prince Sultan Air Base. [396] Authors of the video claim that 22 percent of Saudis may be considered poor (2009). Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U.S. State Department considers Saudi Arabian government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies. More than 1200 species of fish[360] have been recorded in the Red Sea, and around 10 percent of these are found nowhere else. [506] Critics claim that over the last 50 years, 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost,[507] leaving fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca that date back to the time of Muhammad. In 2018 the Al Jouf Agricultural Development Company received a certificate of merit from The Guinness World Records for the largest modern olive plantation in the world. [156] Ideological divisions include issues over the speed and direction of reform,[157] and whether the role of the ulema should be increased or reduced. 2001 [Paris] : Editions Safed 2. Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse, Arabian camel, sheep, goats, cows, donkeys, chickens etc. As stated by Ozgur Unluhisarcikli, director of the German Marshall Fund's Ankara office "Turkey is maintaining a very delicate balance in its relations with Saudi Arabia. Armenien | [489] The weekend is Friday-Saturday, not Saturday-Sunday, because Friday is the holiest day for Muslims. ( The Saudi National Day 23, Sep )", "Dozens detained in Saudi over flood protests", "Saudis mobilise thousands of troops to quell growing revolt", "Saudi ruler offers $36bn to stave off uprising amid warning oil price could double", "Saudi king gives billion-dollar cash boost to housing, jobs – Politics & Economics", "King Abdullah Returns to Kingdom, Enacts Measures to Boost the Economy", "Saudi Arabia's king announces huge jobs and housing package", "Saudi King to Spend $67 Billion on Housing, Jobs in Bid to Pacify Citizens", "Saudi Arabia announces municipal elections", "Saudi Women Inspired by Fall of Mubarak Step Up Equality Demand", "Saudis vote in municipal elections, results on Sunday", "Internet Censorship in Arab Countries: Religious and Moral Aspects", "The world's enduring dictators: Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz, Saudi Arabia", "To really combat terror, end support for Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabia recalls its ambassador to Sweden", "Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Saudi Arabia", "Divided We Survive: A Landscape of Fragmentation in Saudi Arabia", "The House of Saud: rulers of modern Saudi Arabia", "Saudi King Abdullah to go to US for medical treatment", "Prince Salman resumes duties at governorate", "Mohammed bin Nayef kingpin in new Saudi Arabia: country experts", "Prince Sultan bin Abdel Aziz of Saudi Arabia Dies", "Obituary: Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud", "The corrupt, feudal world of the House of Saud", "A Nation Challenged: The Plots; Saudi Arabia Also a Target Of Attacks, U.S. Officials Say", "Saudi bribe claims delay £20bn fighter deal", "BAE accused of secretly paying £1bn to Saudi prince", "BAE Systems sued over alleged Saudi bribes", "Prince Bandar denies BAE bribery claims", "Lord Goldsmith defends BAE Systems plea deal", "Saudi Arabia Arrests 11 Princes, Including Billionaire Alwaleed bin Talal", "Reform in Saudi Arabia: At a snail's pace", "The Power of Saudi Arabia's Islamic Leaders", "International: Law of God versus law of man; Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabian justice: Cruel, or just unusual? Korea, Süd- | "[282], The pressure on Saudi to reveal the insights about Khashoggi's disappearance from the US and other European countries has increased. [219], Since 1960, as a founding member of OPEC, its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market and try to moderate sharp price movements so as to not jeopardise the Western economies.

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