The rate of female employment in Turkey was 30 percent in 2012, the lowest among all OECD countries.  The country's position between Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Sea helped the Turks in gaining complete control of the major trade routes, and an ideal landscape and climate allowed plants and animals to flourish.  Freedom House lists Turkey's media as not free.  The Annan Plan for reunifying the island was supported by the majority of Turkish Cypriots, but rejected by the majority of Greek Cypriots, in separate referendums in 2004. The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Other Turks and Circassians fleeing Russian expansion in areas such as the Caucasus and the Crimea also arrived during this period. For the newspaper, see, Prehistory of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace. , Carpet weaving is a traditional art from pre-Islamic times.  The term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, while the Turkish government is frequently criticised for its treatment of minorities. In the early years of the 21st century, the chronically high inflation was brought under control; this led to the launch of a new currency, the Turkish new lira (Yeni Türk Lirası) in 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. According to the 2011 estimate, the population is increasing by 1.35 percent each year.  Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism. , The largest denomination is Sunni Islam, in accordance with the Hanafi school. Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected at the theatre as well as in historical plays. ", "Cyprus: EU 'appeasement' of Turkey in exploration row will go nowhere", "Turkey threatens Greece over disputed Mediterranean territorial claims", "Turkish Armed Forces Defense Organization", "Deniz Kuvvetlerinden TCG Trakya açıklaması", United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs – Asylum and Migration Division, "EBCO: European Bureau for Conscientious Objection", "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence", "Contribution of Turkish Armed Forces to Peace Support Operations", "Turkey finalizes military training base in Somalia", "Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against Islamic State", "Seeing shared threats, Turkey sets up military base in Qatar", "Turkey to open its largest military base in Somalia", "The World's Most And Least Peaceful Countries in 2016", "European Court of Human Rights: Turkey Ranks First in Violations in between 1959–2011", "Human rights in Turkey: still a long way to go to meet accession criteria", "Lice'nin Fis köyünde PKK'nın kuruluşunu kutladılar", "Turkish lecturer to be put on trial for posing exam question on PKK leader", "The European Court of Human Rights: Case of Benzer and others v. Turkey", "Police arrest and assistance of a lawyer", "Justice Comes from European Court for a Kurdish Journalist", Turkish parliament moves to strip lawmakers' immunity from prosecution, "Turkey orders 70 army officers detained over Gulen links – CNN Turk", "Turkey arrests German for spreading Kurdish propaganda: Anadolu", Erdogan Renews Putsch Purge With Targets in Media, Academia, From soldiers to midwives, Turkey dismisses 15,000 more after coup bid, Turkish court orders release of journalists during their trial, "Turkey's crackdown propels number of journalists in jail worldwide to record high", "Russia, China and Turkey top yearly list of music freedom violations", "Rights violations, terror ops threaten Turkey's democratic institutions: PACE", "Turkey faces scrutiny over alleged use of chemical weapons on children in Syria", "Turkey accused of war crimes after suspected white phosphorus use against civilian Kurds in Syria", "Chemical weapons watchdog: Turkey did not use white phosphorus in Syria", "Damning evidence of war crimes by Turkish forces and allies in Syria", Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, Status, conservation and management of large carnivores in Turkey, "Diyarbakır'da öldürülen leopar İran Parsı çıktı", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020", "Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets", "About Best-Selling Home Appliance Brand Beko UK", "Panoramic view of the modern skyline of Istanbul's European side, with the skyscrapers of Levent at the center and the Bosphorus Bridge (1973) at right", "View of the skyscrapers in Levent from Sporcular Park", "Istanbul remains motoring power of Turkey's economy", "Turkey: Agriculture and Rural Development", "Religious Women in Turkey Have Been Left Out of Emancipation Movement", "M&A Encumbered Risks Damping Hot Money Bond Party: Turkey Credit", "How to ruin a country's economy: AKP's 15 year long order of plunder and depredation in Turkey", "Turkey's external debt stock reaches $453.2B", "Turkey's current account deficit at $5.4 billion in April", "WIND VS COAL POWER IN TURKEY/SOLAR PV VS COAL IN TURKEY", "Coronavirus poses threat to climate action, says watchdog", "Energy pricing and non-market flows in Turkey's energy sector", "Big nations aid fossil fuels more than clean energies amid pandemic, researchers find", "Turkey Bets on EVs with the Pininfarina-Designed TOGG", "Growth and economic crises in Turkey: leaving behind a turbulent past? The territory of Turkey later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC, which led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization in the area..  Women's volleyball clubs, namely Fenerbahçe, Eczacıbaşı and Vakıfbank, have won numerous European championship titles and medals. , The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia, thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey. New contacts are being made all the time. The later "Group D" of artists led by Abidin Dino, Cemal Tollu, Fikret Mualla, Fahrünnisa Zeid, Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu, Adnan Çoker and Burhan Doğançay introduced some trends that had lasted in the West for more than three decades. Gregory Terlecki. In 2015, Aziz Sancar, a Turkish professor at the University of North Carolina, won the Nobel Chemistry Prize along with Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich, for their work on how cells repair damaged DNA. There are 600 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts.  Opened in 2013, the Marmaray tunnel under the Bosphorus connects the railway and metro lines of Istanbul's European and Asian sides; while the nearby Eurasia Tunnel (2016) provides an undersea road connection for motor vehicles. A global map of Incredible Edible groups, and the places where people are interacting with the movement. Turkey supported the coalition forces in the First Gulf War. On February 28, 1983, CBS aired the series finale of the comedy classic. Local administrations were established to provide services in place and the government is represented by the province governors (vali) and town governors (kaymakam). The reforms aimed to transform the old religion-based and multi-communal Ottoman constitutional monarchy into a Turkish nation state that would be governed as a parliamentary republic under a secular constitution. Charles A. Truxillo (2012), Jain Publishing Company, "Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War". Turkey's migrant crisis created after an estimated 2.5 percent of the population are international migrants. The Tanzimat reforms introduced previously unknown Western genres, primarily the novel and the short story. , Turkey has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as the "Historic Areas of Istanbul", the "Rock Sites of Cappadocia", the "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük", "Hattusa: the Hittite Capital", the "Archaeological Site of Troy", "Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape", "Hierapolis – Pamukkale", and "Mount Nemrut"; and 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list, such as the archaeological sites or historic urban centres of Göbekli Tepe, Gordion, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Perga, Lycia, Sagalassos, Aizanoi, Zeugma, Ani, Harran, Mardin, Konya and Alanya. View the profiles of people named Greg Trembley.  By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk.  As a reaction to the failed coup d'état, the government carried out mass purges. … , Turkey has adopted the principle of the separation of powers. Between 1923 and 2018, Turkey was a parliamentary representative democracy. – 1 A.D. in, "Acts 11:26 and when he found him, he brought him back to Antioch.  Mimar Sinan (c.1489–1588) was the most important architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. They have also lived in Stratham, NH and Exeter, NH. Title: The Art of Three Author: Racheline Maltese & Erin McRae Publisher: Self Published Cover Artist: Unknown Rating: 5.00 of 5 Stars Publication Date: 03/28/2017. I recently ordered 2 bottles of $25 wine. The vast majority of these are living in Turkey with temporary residence permits. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. The conflict between Turkey and the PKK (designated a terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States, the European Union and NATO) has been active since 1984, primarily in the southeast of the country. Traces of Byzantine design can be detected; Turkic peoples migrating from Central Asia, as well as Armenian people, Caucasian and Kurdish tribes either living in, or migrating to Anatolia, brought with them their traditional designs. Today there are more than 120,000-320,000 people of various Christian denominations, representing less than 0.2% of Turkey's population, including an estimated 80,000 Oriental Orthodox, 35,000 Roman Catholics, 18,000 Antiochian Greeks, 5,000 Greek Orthodox and smaller numbers of Protestants. The Administrative Code bears similarities with its French counterpart, and the Penal Code with its Italian counterpart.  As of April 2020, there are 3.6 million Syrian refugees in Turkey, who are mostly Arabs but also include Syrian Kurds, Syrian Turkmen, and other ethnic groups of Syria. Reset this favorite; show all Subscribe options, Get Prism Book Alliance® delivered by email. Autonomous utilities have been created in the 16 metropolitan cities of Turkey and cost recovery has been increased, thus providing the basis for the sustainability of service provision. , Water supply and sanitation in Turkey is characterised by achievements and challenges. Greg Tremblay has 144 books on Goodreads with 5631 ratings.  In 2015 Turkey's media was rated as not free by Freedom House. , The Ministry of Health has run a universal public healthcare system since 2003.  Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (16 inches), with actual amounts determined by elevation. Since the fall of the empire in World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and Western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet. The history of its designs, motifs and ornaments thus reflects the political and ethnic history and diversity of Asia minor. Zero Hour (TV Series 2004– ) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. Istanbul straddles the Bosporus strait, one of two waterways that separates the …  A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO.  The Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey.  Endangered languages in Turkey include Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Cappadocian Greek, Gagauz, Hértevin, Homshetsma, Kabard-Cherkes, Ladino (Judesmo), Laz, Mlahso, Pontic Greek, Romani, Suret, Turoyo, Ubykh, and Western Armenian. Tourism in Turkey has increased almost every year in the 21st century, and is an important part of the economy. Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Turkic, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Westernisation of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today. In addition, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes rules on cases that cannot be classified readily as falling within the purview of one court system. Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras.  In the following year, the single-party period in Turkey came to an end, with the first multiparty elections in 1946. However, the ban was lifted from universities in 2011, from government buildings in 2013, from schools in 2014 and from the Armed Forces in 2017. The Ottomans successfully defended the Dardanelles strait during the Gallipoli campaign (1915–1916) and achieved initial victories against British forces in the first two years of the Mesopotamian campaign, such as the Siege of Kut (1915–1916); but the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) turned the tide against the Ottomans in the Middle East. The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism currently promotes Turkish tourism under the Turkey Home name. The first Turkish-made film was a documentary entitled Ayastefanos'taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı (Demolition of the Russian Monument at San Stefano), directed by Fuat Uzkınay and completed in 1914. Explore Life Stories, Offer Condolences & Send Flowers.  Türksat is the sole communications satellite operator in Turkey and has launched the Türksat series of satellites into orbit. Greg is related to Gregory E Tremblay and Zachary Tremblay as well as 1 additional person. Until then, female roles had only been played by actresses who were members of Turkey's ethnic minorities.  Some religious and secular officials have claimed that atheism and deism are growing among Turkish people.  Asian Turkey, which includes 97 percent of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. New York City United States Official Selection Montreal Independent Film Festival . However, in 1983, Prime Minister Turgut Özal initiated a series of reforms designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model. , Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. No sure if there are any discounts for multiple cases in one order, or multiple orders of single cases. However, negotiations for solving the Cyprus dispute are still ongoing between Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot political leaders..  In reaction to the failed coup attempt on 15 July 2016, over 160,000 judges, teachers, police and civil servants have been suspended or dismissed, 77,000 have been formally arrested, and 130 media organisations, including 16 television broadcasters and 45 newspapers, have been closed by the government of Turkey. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether.  With the Surname Law of 1934, the Turkish Parliament bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father Turk). The Mevlevi Order of dervishes, which was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumi, played a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized. Fast Food: review the restaurants that offer these dishes nearby in your city. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available. Select this result to view Greg E Tremblay's phone number, address, and more. Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BC. , On 20 May 2016, the Turkish parliament stripped almost a quarter of its members of immunity from prosecution, including 101 deputies from the pro-Kurdish HDP and the main opposition CHP party.  The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, the second longest oil pipeline in the world, was inaugurated in 2005. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. In line with this principle, judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation. The North Anatolian Fault Line runs across the north of the country from west to east, along which major earthquakes took place in history. ", "Turkey rounds up thousands of suspected participants in coup attempt", "Pence heads to Turkey as Erdogan rejects calls for ceasefire in Syria", "Full Text: Memorandum of Understanding between Turkey and Russia on northern Syria", "Turkey not resuming military operation in northeast Syria: security source", "General Structure of Turkish Public Administration", "Ministry of Internal Affairs: Administrative Units in Turkey", "The Turkish Constitution and the Kurdish Question", "HDP arrests pose grave risks for Turkey's future", "Europeanization and the dilemma of decentralization: centre–local relations in Turkey", "BDP's decentralization proposal debated in Turkey", "The principle of decentralization in the new constitution", "Recep Tayyip the First: Erdogan inaugurates a new political era in Turkey", "Turkey elections: How powerful will the next Turkish president be? Please give them a warm welcome. [needs update] Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.  The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (990 miles) long and 800 kilometres (500 miles) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape. and projecting this "Turkish Islam" abroad. The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Turkish cuisine on a "historical continuum" that dated back to Turkic origins in Central Asia and continued through the Seljuk and Ottoman periods. 0.2 km In radius 0.2 km from Tremblay-en-France city center 0.5 km In radius 0.5 km from Tremblay-en-France city center 1 km In radius 1 km from Tremblay-en-France city center  Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.. Walker ~ Book Review by Sadie, Joe Cosentino on Cozzi Cove: New Beginnings, Cozzi Cove book 4 ~ Exclusive Excerpt, Guest Blog Local Giveaway, Insight by Santino Hassell ~ Book Review by Sadie, Celebrating HFNs ~ Outside the Margins with Kaje Harper, Grace R. Duncan on Three Hearts ~ Guest Blog Rafflecopter Giveaway, Alex Beecroft on Angels of Istanbul ~ Exclusive Excerpt Local Giveaway, Garrett Leigh on Strays ~ Interview Local Giveaway, Strays by Garrett Leigh ~ Book Review by Caroline, Eric Andrews-Katz on Tartarus ~ Interview No Giveaway, Endings and Beginnings ~ Outside the Margins with Greg Tremblay, Goodbye, Farewell, and Amen ~ Outside the Margins with Shae Connor, Karen Bovenmyer on Swift for the Sun ~ Guest Blog Local Giveaway, Lane Hayes on Leaning Into the Fall ~ Guest Blog Rafflecopter Giveaway.  The Turkish pine is mostly found in Turkey and other east Mediterranean countries. Turkey's extraordinary ecosystem and habitat diversity has produced considerable species diversity. , Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons. In the east, the Ottomans were often at war with Safavid Persia over conflicts stemming from territorial disputes or religious differences between the 16th and 18th centuries.  The Greco-Persian Wars started when the Greek city states on the coast of Anatolia rebelled against Persian rule in 499 BC.  The women's national basketball team won the silver medal at the EuroBasket Women 2011 and the bronze medal at the EuroBasket Women 2013. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I.  Turkey was a member of the United Nations Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955, 1961 and 2009–2010. Please give them a warm welcome. ", "Çatalhöyük added to UNESCO World Heritage List", "Ziyaret Tepe – Turkey Archaeological Dig Site", "Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times And Today, "Anatolia and the Caucasus, 2000–1000 B.C.  However, following the rapprochement with Russia in 2016, Turkey revised its stance regarding the solution of the conflict in Syria. , The EU – Turkey Customs Union in 1995 led to an extensive liberalisation of tariff rates, and forms one of the most important pillars of Turkey's foreign trade policy. Title: Swift for the Sun Author: Prism Book AllianceÂ® would like to thank Lane Hayes for stopping by today.  Currently there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey. Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II, but entered the closing stages of the war on the side of the Allies on 23 February 1945.  In 2015, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar formed a "strategic alliance" against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip movement led by Orhan Veli, Oktay Rıfat and Melih Cevdet.  The country is among the founding members of the OECD and the G20.  Turkey is ranked 32nd out of 34 in the OECD's PISA study.  This is compulsory and lasts twelve years: four years each of primary school, middle school and high school. , Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since the Korean War, including peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Yugoslavia and the Horn of Africa. Turkish directors like Nuri Bilge Ceylan, Yılmaz Güney and Ferzan Özpetek won numerous international awards such as the Palme d'Or and Golden Bear. Yüzyış ve XX. , The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is an ecoregion which covers most of the Pontic Mountains in northern Turkey, while the Caucasus mixed forests extend across the eastern end of the range.  The Kemalist view supports a form of democracy with a secular constitution and Westernised culture, while maintaining the necessity of state intervention in the economy, education and other public services.  Turkey under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and the AKP has been described as becoming increasingly authoritarian. Following the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the permanent division of the Roman Empire between his two sons, the city, which would popularly come to be known as Constantinople, became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. The men's national basketball team won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship and at the EuroBasket 2001, which were both hosted by Turkey; and is one of the most successful at the Mediterranean Games. In Northwest Turkey, the most significant tribal group in Thrace was the Odyrisians, founded by Teres I. It consists of the construction of a spaceport, the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations. Not all were ethnic Turks; some were Muslim Albanians, Bosniaks, Greek Muslims, Muslim Serbs, Macedonian Muslims and Bulgarian Muslims. Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, some Kurdish and Zaza tribes, which were feudal (manorial) communities led by chieftains (agha) during the Ottoman period, became discontent about certain aspects of Atatürk's reforms aiming to modernise the country, such as secularism (the Sheikh Said rebellion, 1925) and land reform (the Dersim rebellion, 1937–1938), and staged armed revolts that were put down with military operations. Turkey's first sound film was shown in 1931. The understanding of perspective was different from that of the nearby European Renaissance painting tradition, and the scene depicted often included different time periods and spaces in one picture. , By 18 September 1922 the Greek, Armenian and French armies had been expelled, and the Turkish Provisional Government in Ankara, which had declared itself the legitimate government of the country on 23 April 1920, started to formalise the legal transition from the old Ottoman into the new Republican political system. , Winters on the eastern part of the plateau are especially severe.  Access to high-quality school heavily depends on the performance in the secondary school entrance exams, to the point that some students begin taking private tutoring classes when they are ten years old. , The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign policy was the country's long-standing strategic alliance with the United States. Starting from the 11th-century, the traditions of the Seljuk Turks blended with those of the indigenous peoples of Anatolia and the interaction between diverse cultures paved the way for new plays. ", "Turkey: International Religious Freedom Report 2007", "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Turkey : Alevis", "Erdogan, Iran, Syrian Alawites, and Turkish Alevis", "Turkey's Alevi minority fear future under Erdogan presidency", "Sectarian Tension Builds in Turkey as Erdogan Crackdown Widens", Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, "The politics of population in a nation-building process: emigration of non-Muslims from Turkey", "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050", "Christen in der islamischen Welt – Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte", "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom", "An Overview of the History of the Jews in Turkey", "Beyond the Straight Path: Obstacles and Progress for Atheism in Turkey", "The first Atheist Association in Turkey is founded", "Why so many Turks are losing faith in Islam", "Atheism grows in Turkey as Recep Tayyip Erdogan urges Islam | DW | 09.01.2019", "The number of atheists increasing in Turkey", "Turkey's Education Reform Bill Is About Playing Politics With Pedagogy", "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2012", "Improving The Quality And Equity of Basic Education in Turkey Challenges And Options", "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)", "Guide for Foreign Students planning Education in Turkey", "Turkish universities latest domino in Erdogan's path", "Turkey drops evolution and starts teaching jihad instead", "UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists", "Turks – A Journey of a Thousand Years: 600–1600", "A list of the buildings designed by Mimar Sinan", "The Search for Identity: 1st National Architecture Movement", "Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period", "XIX.